Also known in China as Faith of Jing, Nestorianism was a branch of Christianity. Its founder Nestorian, an ethnic Syrian, was previously a bishop in Constantinople in eastern Roman Empire. He advocated the duality of Jesus Christ, god and man, which made him a heresy in some eyes and therefore persecuted. After fleeing to Persia, he obtained protection from the Persian king, so he established an independent church in 498 AD and started to disseminate the faith to the neighboring areas. The Faith of Jing was a name given to Nestorianism by Nestorian Christians living in China, which sounded like Jesus and meant brilliance and brightness. As it was born in Persia, the faith was also called Persian Sect. During the Yuan Dynasty, Nestorian Christianity and Roman Catholic Church that reached China were generally called Yelikwen Sect. Records have it that Nestorianism arrived in the inland of China in 635 AD (the 9th year of Zhenguan reign of Tang Dynasty). It should have
reached the Western Regions earlier than the inland, maybe in the latter half of the 6th century as some scholars argue.
At first Nestorianism was not widely received in the Western Regions. In the 9th-10th centuries it was limited to the area of Gaochang Uighur Khanate. Two sites of that period were found outside the city of Gaochang, Turpan. One was a church site, outside the eastern city gate, where two fragmented Nestorian murals were discovered, one entitled Palm Branch God’s Day, depicting people greeting Jesus when he entered Jerusalem; the other portraying a knight with cross in hand. The second site was a monastery near Blayke Shuipan in the north of Turpan, where many Nestorian manuscripts were unearthed, including excerpts of the Bible, book of service, book of sermon, canons, quotations and prescriptions. These documents were written in 6 different languages, Syriac, Sogdian, mid-ancient Persian, Pahlavi, new Persian and Uighur/ Huihu Turkic^23*. The biggest proportion was written in Syriac, as it was the sacred language of Nestorianism; mid-ancient Persian and Pahlavi were least used as they were northern and southern dialects in ancient Persia, mainly used for services; Sogdian language made considerable appearances, plus new Persian and Uighur/ Huihu Turkic, suggesting that Nestorianism in this region mainly came from Sogdiana and that the Nestorian Corps here was mainly composed of Sogdians, Uighurs and Persians. From the 9th to 11th century, the Gaochang Uighur Kingdom was the most tolerant towards this faith, hence Nestorian believers in Sogdiana and Persia under strong Muslim pressure came to Gaochang xian china guerreros de terracota. At that time, Nestorianism penetrated into the secular life of some Uighur people, as the Uighur-script “Psalms” was exclusively used for wedding purposes. Since the region of Gaochang Uighur was the thoroughfare on the Silk Road, the Nestorian churches also had the function of providing religious services for travelling Sogdian and Persian traders. However, the fragmented documents also described conflicts and rivalries to certain extent between Nestorianism on the one hand and Buddhism and Zoroastrianism on the other.